Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body. Often, you may be more interested in functions of the body. Functions include digestion, respiration, circulation,and reproduction. Physiology is the study of the functions of the body. The body is a chemical and physical machine. As such, it is subject to certain laws. These are sometimes called natural laws. Each part of the body is engineered to do a particular job. These jobs are functions. For each job or body function, there is a particular structure engineered to do it.
Different Systems of the Body
- i) The Locomotor This includes the parts concerned in the movements of the body: the skeletal system which is composed of the bones, and certain cartilages and membranes, the articulatory system which deals with the joints or articulations and the muscular system which includes muscles, fascia and tendon sheaths.
- ii) The Blood-Vascular System includes the circulatory system and lymphatic Blood is the principal transport system; it is pumped round the body by the heart, oxygen is brought from the lungs and carbon dioxide collect from the tissues. Food passes to the liver and thence to the general circulation. Waste products are passed to the kidneys
iii) The Digestive System consists of the alimentary canal and the glands organs associated with it. Food is broken down by enzymes in the digestive tract and taken by the blood to the liver and finally to the tissues.
- iv) The Respiratory System contains the passages and organs concerned with Oxygen from the air is taken into the blood and carried to the tissues; the waste product, carbon dioxide (CO2), is carried by the blood from the body tissues to the lungs and breathed out in the expired air.
- v) The Endocrine Glands are group together because of the internal secretions they The spleen is sometimes including in this group because it also had no duct, though as far as is known it does not produce and internal secretion; it is concerned with the formation of red blood cells.
vi)The Nervous System is composed of the central nervous system which includes the brain and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system consisting of the nerves given off brain and cord and the autonomic nervous system. The central and peripheral systems are often grouped together and described as the cerebrospinal nervous system. The autonomic nervous system includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. It is also described as the involuntary nervous system.